High Courts in the States are an important segment of the Indian Judiciary. This article will give information about the IPS exam and it will also help the readers to understand how many high courts in India.
As per Article 214 of the Constitution of India, each state in India will have a High Court which is the supreme judicial body in a state. Article 231 gives details about having a common High Court for two or more states or for two or more states and a union territory. There are 25 High Courts in India. 6 of the High Courts have control over more than 1 Union Territory or state.
The Punjab and Haryana have a common High Court located in Chandigarh. The Kerala High Court has territorial jurisdiction over Kerala and Lakshadweep. The Guwahati High Court has territorial jurisdiction over Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. The Madras High Court has territorial jurisdiction over Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry. The Kolkata High Court has territorial jurisdiction over West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands. The Bombay High Court has territorial jurisdiction over Maharashtra, Goa, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman Diu.
When people read about Courts or the Judiciary, they would have come across some terms which are commonly used. They are Full Bench, Division Bench, Circuit Bench, Permanent Bench, and Tribunals. A court of law consisting of a greater-than-normal number of judges is known as Full Bench. When a case is heard and judged by at least 2 judges then it is known as Division Bench. A Circuit Bench is for territories which are far-flung but do not have too many matters to justify a full-fledged permanent bench. A permanent bench comprises one or more High Court judges who sit year long at a particular location that is different from the permanent seat of the High Court. A tribunal is a term for anybody acting judicially, whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title.
The number of judges in High Courts will vary from courts to courts and from states to states. For High Courts, there are no minimum fixed number of judges. There will be a Chief Justice in every High Court. Some of the requirements that need to be fulfilled to become a High Court judge are, he should have held a judicial office in the territory of India for ten years, he has been for at least 10 years an advocate of one or two or more High Court, and he should be a citizen of India.
The IPS exam is one of the toughest exams in India. The IPS exam is conducted by the Union Public Service Commission. Aspirants who are able to clear the Civil Service examination and have the necessary cut-off can enter the Indian Police Service (IPS). The IPS probationers go to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy (SVPNPA), Hyderabad to complete their training after completion of their foundation course at Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA), Mussoorie. For the new IPS officers, there is almost two years of training or a probationary period.
The Indian Police Service functions under the Ministry of Home Affairs. Some of the responsibilities of the IPS officers are maintaining public peace and order, investigation, detection and collection of intelligence, anti-smuggling and drug trafficking, VIP security, Biodiversity and protection/enforcement of environmental laws, interacting and coordinating closely with Indian Armed forces, and other All India Services. IPS officers hold very high positions in various agencies such as CID, Intelligence Bureau (IB), Research & Analysis Wing (R&AW), Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI).